Updated in 2/11/2011 10:15:11 AM      Viewed: 301 times      (Journal Article)
Acc. Chem. Res. 43 (2): 346–355 (2009)

Periodic Trends in Organic Functionalization of Group IV Semiconductor Surfaces

Jessica S Kachian , Keith T Wong , Stacey F Bent
ABSTRACT
Organic functionalization of group IV semiconductor surfaces provides a means to precisely control the interfacial properties of some of the most technologically important electronic materials in use today. The 2×1 reconstructed group IV (100) surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum, in particular, have a well-defined surface that allows adsorbate−surface interactions to be studied in detail. Surface dimers containing a strong σ- and weak π-bond form upon reconstruction of the group IV (100) surfaces, imparting a rich surface reactivity, which allows useful analogies to be made between reactions at the surface and those in classic organic chemistry. To date, most studies have focused on single substrates and a limited number of adsorbate functional groups. In this Account, we bring together experimental and theoretical results from several studies to investigate broader trends in thermodynamics and kinetics of organic molecules reacted with group IV (100)-2×1 surfaces. By rationalizing these trends in terms of simple periodic properties, we aim to provide guidelines by which to understand the chemical origin of the observed trends and predict how related molecules or functionalities will react. Results of experimental and theoretical studies are used to show that relative electronegativities and orbital overlap correlate well with surface−adsorbate covalent bond strength, while orbital overlap together with donor electronegativity and acceptor electron affinity correlate with surface−adsorbate dative bond strength. Using such simple properties as predictive tools is limited, of course, but theoretical calculations fill in some of the gaps. The predictive power inherent in periodic trends may be put to use in designing molecules for applications where controlled attachment of organic molecules to semiconductor surfaces is needed. Organic functionalization may facilitate the semiconductor industry’s transition from traditional silicon-based architectures to other materials, such as germanium, that offer better electrical properties. Potential applications also exist in other fields ranging from organic and molecular electronics, where control of interfacial properties may allow coupling of traditional semiconductor technology with such developing technologies, to biosensors and nanoscale lithography, where the functionality imparted to the surface may be used directly. Knowledge of thermodynamic and kinetic trends and the fundamental basis of these trends may enable effective development of new functionalization strategies for such applications.
DOI: 10.1021/ar900251s