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Culture & Psychology 5 (2) (1999)
Beyond the Dilemma of Cross-Cultural Psychology: Resolving the Tension between Etic and Emic Approaches
The dynamics of cross-cultural psychology derive from the basic dilemma between the etic and the emic approach. Following a critique of the two approaches, I attempt to resolve the tension between the two approaches by presenting a conceptual framework called the triarchic resonance principle. This principle explicitly takes the dynamic relationship between culture, individual and ecological task demands into account. This dynamic relationship is exhibited by three different perspectives of temporal development—ontogenetic development, cultural change and microgenetic development of ecological task demands—which are integrated into a common model. The conceptual framework is illustrated with examples from research on intelligence and perception.