Updated in 10/21/2009 6:23:51 AM      Viewed: 66 times      (Journal Article)
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia 77 (1): 79-83 (2005)

Ultrasound anatomy and normal ECD of the kidney

P Rosi , M Del Zingaro , M Porena
ABSTRACT
The adult kidney is studied using convex-array probes with a frequency of 3.5 MHz, whereas in children higher frequencies are advisable (5MHz). The study of the organ may be carried out with three possible approaches (access routes): abdominal (anterior), lumbar (lateral), dorsal (posterior). For a correct and complete study of the renal echostructure 5 fundamental parameters need to be evaluated: shape, size, parenchymal echotexture, renal sinus and renal hilum. The most common anatomical variants need to be identified and namely, dromedary humps, foetal lobation, hypertrophied column of Berten, hypertrophied renal tubercles and labia. The use of colour-Doppler ultrasound equipment permits assessment of the main renal arteries, the segmentary branches at the level of the hilum, the interlobar arteries, the arcuate arteries, and the interlobular arteries (inconsistently). Colour and duplex ultrasound enable identification of flow signals from arteries that are not directly visible at B-mode sonography, since frequency resolution (related to the doppler-shift) is greater than spatial and contrast resolution. Power doppler provides a detailed visualisation of the distribution of vascular structures and blood circulation in the different regions of the kidney parenchyma, affording a perfusion study similar to angiographic parenchymography. Unlike colour Doppler, power Doppler allows identification of the cortical circulation. The Doppler pattern of the renal arteries is typical of arteries with parenchyma destination, which show a systolic peak and a well-depicted diastolic curve due to low peripheral resistance. The parameters to be analysed are peak systolic velocity, acceleration time, pulsatility index, and resistive index.
ISSN: 11243562 (ISSN)     
Notes
Cited By (since 1996): 1Export Date: 21 October 2009Source: ScopusCODEN: AIUAFPubMed ID: 15906801Language of Original Document: EnglishCorrespondence Address: Rosi, P.; Clinica Urologica e Andrologica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Policlinico Monteluce, Via Brunamonti, 06100 Perugia, ItalyReferences: Helenon, O., Correas, J.M., Diagnostic imaging of peripheral renal vascular disorders (2004) J Radiol, 85, p. 250; Scholbach, T., Dimos, I., Scholbach, J., A new method of colour Doppler perfusion measurement via dynamic sonographic signal quantification in renal parenchyma (2004) Nephron Physiol, 96, p. 99; McNamara, M.M., Lockhart, M.E., Robbin, M.L., Emergency Doppler evaluation of the liver and kidneys (2004) Radiol Clin North Am, 42, p. 397; Arora, R.S., Pryce, R., Is ultrasonography required to rule out renal malformations in babies with isolated preauricular tags? (2004) Arch Dis Child, 89, p. 492; Dana, A., Helenon, O., Urinary tract imaging: Conventional radiology and ultrasound (2004) J Radiol, 85, p. 159; El-Sherbiny, M.T., Aboul-Ghar, M.E., Hafez, A.T., Hammad, A.A., Bazeed, M.A., Late renal functional and morphological evaluation after nonoperative treatment of high-grade renal injuries in children (2004) BJU Int, 93, p. 1053; Agostiniani, R., Renal eco Doppler in pediatrics (1997) Pediatr Med Chir, 19, p. 355; Arora, R.S., Pryce, R., Is ultrasonography required to rule out renal malformations in babies with isolated preauricular tags? (2004) Arch Dis Child, 89, p. 492; Kuwa, T., Cancio, L.C., Sondeen, J.L., Matylevich, N., Jordan, B.S., McManus, A.T., Goodwin, C.W., Evaluation of renal cortical perfusion by noninvasive power Doppler ultrasound during vascular occlusion and reperfusion (2004) J Trauma, 56, p. 618