|Updated in 9/18/2010 12:26:22 AM ||Viewed: 195 times ||(Journal Article) |
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 30 (4): 749-57 (2010)
Specific dietary polyphenols attenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice by alleviating inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.
Wai Mun Loke , Julie M Proudfoot , Jonathan M Hodgson , Allan J McKinley , Neil Hime , Maria Magat , Roland Stocker , Kevin D Croft
OBJECTIVE: Animal and clinical studies have suggested that polyphenols in fruits, red wine, and tea may delay the development of atherosclerosis through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated whether individual dietary polyphenols representing different polyphenolic classes, namely quercetin (flavonol), (-)-epicatechin (flavan-3-ol), theaflavin (dimeric catechin), sesamin (lignan), or chlorogenic acid (phenolic acid), reduce atherosclerotic lesion formation in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-/-) gene-knockout mouse. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quercetin and theaflavin (64-mg/kg body mass daily) significantly attenuated atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic sinus and thoracic aorta (P<0.05 versus ApoE(-/-) control mice). Quercetin significantly reduced aortic F(2)-isoprostane, vascular superoxide, vascular leukotriene B(4), and plasma-sP-selectin concentrations; and augmented vascular endothelial NO synthase activity, heme oxygenase-1 protein, and urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.05 versus control ApoE(-/-) mice). Theaflavin showed similar, although less extensive, significant effects. Although (-)-epicatechin significantly reduced F(2)-isoprostane, superoxide, and endothelin-1 production (P<0.05 versus control ApoE(-/-) mice), it had no significant effect on lesion size. Sesamin and chlorogenic acid treatments exerted no significant effects. Quercetin, but not (-)-epicatechin, significantly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 protein in lesions versus ApoE(-/-) controls. CONCLUSIONS: Specific dietary polyphenols, in particular quercetin and theaflavin, may attenuate atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) gene-knockout mice by alleviating inflammation, improving NO bioavailability, and inducing heme oxygenase-1. These data suggest that the cardiovascular protection associated with diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and some beverages may in part be the result of flavonoids, such as quercetin.