Updated in 12/22/2016 8:47:39 PM      Viewed: 6 times      (Patent)

Methods and apparatus for arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement

Richard B Caspari , Jeffrey G Roberts , James T Treace
ABSTRACT
Methods and apparatus for prosthetic knee replacement permit preparation of tibial plateau and femoral condyle surfaces and implant of tibial and femoral protheses components with the use of arthroscopic surgical techniques. The bone surfaces are resected by moving a rotating milling cutter longitudinally across the bone surface and moving the rotating milling cutter substantially laterally across the bone. Cement is supplied between the prostheses and the bone surfaces after positioning of the prostheses on the bone, and cement bonding is enhanced by applying suction to the bone to draw the cement into the bone.
Notes
Claims


What is claimed is:

1. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement comprising the steps of

making a portal in the tissue adjacent the knee;

visualizing the knee with an arthroscope;

inserting an instrument through the portal and preparing a surface of the tibial plateau and a corresponding surface of the femoral condyle;

increasing the size of the portal to be just large enough to receive a tibial prosthesis and a femoral prosthesis;

inserting the tibial prosthesis through the portal and implanting the tibial prosthesis on the prepared tibial plateau surface; and

inserting the femoral prosthesis through the portal and implanting the femoral prosthesis on the prepared femoral condyle surface.

2. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 1 wherein the instrument is a cutting instrument and said surface preparing step includes the steps of mounting the cutting instrument on a tibial jig secured to thetibia, cutting the tibial plateau surface with the cutting instrument to be planar, mounting the cutting instrument on a femoral jig secured to the femur with the use of an alignment fixture such that the cutting instrument is movable in at least oneplane perpendicular to a reference plane extending perpendicular to the planar tibial plateau surface, and cutting the femoral condyle with the cutting instrument to form a planar femoral condyle surface disposed perpendicular to the reference plane.

3. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 2 wherein said femoral condyle cutting step includes moving the cutting instrument to make a distal planar cut and moving the cutting instrument to make a posteriorplanar cut disposed in a plane substantially perpendicular to the plane of the distal planar cut, the planes of the distal and posterior planar cuts each being perpendicular to the reference plane.

4. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 2 wherein said femoral condyle cutting step includes moving the cutting instrument to make a chamfer planar cut extending between the distal planar cut and the posteriorplanar cut, the plane of the chamfer cut being perpendicular to the reference plane.

5. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 4 wherein the cutting instrument is a rotating milling cutter, said tibial plateau cutting step includes moving the milling cutter longitudinally and laterally over thetibial plateau and said femoral condyle cutting step includes moving the milling cutter longitudinally and laterally over the femoral condyle.

6. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 1 wherein said tibial prosthesis implanting step includes the steps of placing the tibial prosthesis against the prepared tibial plateau surface and, thereafter,inserting cement between the tibial prosthesis and the prepared tibial plateau surface.

7. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 6 wherein said femoral prosthesis implanting step includes placing the femoral prosthesis against the prepared femoral condyle surface and, thereafter, inserting cementbetween the femoral prosthesis and the prepared femoral condyle surface.

8. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 7 wherein said femoral prothesis implanting step includes forming a hole in the femur and applying suction to the femur through the hole to draw the cement into thefemoral condyle.

9. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 1 wherein said tibial plateau surface preparing step includes mounting a cutter platform on the tibia, sliding a stylus along the cutter platform to contact the tibialplateau and the tibial eminence, adjusting the position of the cutter platform in accordance with the points of contact of the stylus with the tibial plateau and the tibial eminence, and sliding a cutting instrument along the cutter platform to resectthe tibial plateau.

10. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 9 wherein said femoral condyle surface preparing step includes mounting a cutter platform on the femur, sliding a stylus along the cutter platform to contact thefemoral condyle adjusting the position of the cutter platform in accordance with the point of contact of the stylus with the femoral condyle, and sliding a cutting instrument along the cutter platform to resect the femoral condyle.

11. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 1 wherein said tibial surface preparing step includes the steps of mounting a cutting platform on a tibial jig secured to the tibia, cutting the tibial plateau surfaceby sliding the cutting instrument on the cutting platform to be planar, and said femoral surface preparing step includes the steps of mounting the cutting platform on a femoral jig secured to the femur with the use of an alignment fixture such that thecutting instrument is slidable only in planes perpendicular to a reference plane extending perpendicular to the planar tibial plateau surface, sliding the cutting instrument on the cutting platform to make a distal planar cut, sliding the cuttinginstrument on the cutting platform to make a posterior planar cut disposed in a plane substantially perpendicular to the plane of the distal planar cut, and sliding the cutting instrument on the cutting platform to make a chamfer planar cut extendingbetween the distal planar cut and the posterior planar cut, the planes of the distal, posterior and chamfer planar cuts being perpendicular to the reference plane.

12. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 11 and further comprising the steps of measuring the length of the chamfer planar cut between the distal and posterior planar cuts and selecting a tibial prosthesis forinsertion and implanting corresponding to the length of the chamfer planar cut.

13. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement as recited in claim 1 and further comprising, prior to said tibial plateau and femoral condyle preparing step, the step of removing an anterior portion of the meniscus to leave a posteriorportion of the meniscus in place to act as an indicator of the posterior rim of the tibial plateau during said tibial plateau preparing step.

14. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement comprising the steps of

making a portal of minimal size to receive a tibial prosthesis and a femoral prosthesis in the tissue adjacent the knee;

visualizing the knee with an arthroscope;

inserting an instrument though the portal and preparing a surface of the tibial plateau and a corresponding surface of the femoral condyle;

inserting the tibial prosthesis through the portal and implanting the tibial prosthesis on the prepared tibial plateau surface; and

inserting the femoral prosthesis through the portal and implanting the femoral prosthesis on the prepared femoral condyle surface.

15. A method of arthroscopic prosthetic knee replacement comprising the steps of

visualizing the knee with an arthroscope;

inserting an instrument at the knee through a portal no greater than substantially 11/2 inches formed in tissue adjacent the knee and preparing a surface of the tibial plateau and a corresponding surface of the femoral condyle;

inserting a tibial prosthesis through the portal and implanting the tibial prosthesis on the prepared tibial plateau surface; and

inserting a femoral prosthesis through the portal and implanting the femoral prosthesis on the prepared femoral condyle surface.